Notwithstanding, U. Furthermore, the excessive delays in the collection of some biological samples in the FARS file may have reduced the number of marijuana-positive results and diluted the contribution of marijuana to fatal crash risk.Another important outcome from this study is that the contribution of alcohol to crash risk is much larger than that by other drugs. There has also been an increased emphasis on reducing driving while under the influence of drugs. About 7. The effects of drugs on psychomotor performance and crash risk have been studied since the s. Of interest is the comparison between the ORs for drug-positive and alcohol-positive drivers. Risk estimations from different methodological approaches. A crash is rarely attributable to only one factor, indicating that it is very difficult to precisely determine in what percentage of crashes alcohol or drugs have contributed. Blutalkohol, 11, Supplement. Alcohol was not only found to be an important contributor to fatal crash risk, but also in keeping with prior research, it was associated with fatal crash risk levels significantly higher than those for other drugs. DUID was the ninth leading cause of death in and could become the fifth leading cause of death by World Health Organization, For drivers age 35 and older, these differences are reduced to about 3 and 7 times higher, albeit they remain statistically significant. Therefore, some of the findings reported in this effort may not be reproduced if examined on nonfatal crashes. For example, males were more likely than females to have driven under the influence of alcohol in the 21 to 25 age group In , illicit drug use was estimated to be responsible for just over 39, road traffic deaths worldwide.
Parent drugs and metabolites vary in their impairing effect depending, among other factors, on their concentration, mechanism of consumption, time since consumption, and individual genotypic and phenotypic characteristics. In this chapter, we will give an overview of current knowledge and the remaining challenges, in particular the emergence of new psychoactive substances and the legalization of cannabis.
Washington, DC: U. Males in the 16 to 20 age group were more likely to drive under the influence of illicit drugs and to drive under the simultaneous influence of alcohol and illicit drugs.The risk of a crash is almost doubled after cannabis use, increased about seven times after amphetamine use. Figure 7. Open in a separate window aOdds ratios relative to drug negative drivers. Blutalkohol, 11, Supplement. As such, the findings of this effort are timely and important. While alcohol and illicit drugs were mainly observed in male drivers from Southern Europe, medicines were more prevalent in women. A case-control study estimating accident risk for alcohol, medicines and illegal drugs. Categorical data analysis. They offer the opportunity not only to apprehend the highest risk drivers but also to identify and intervene with a substantial number of drug-using drivers. Figure 1. Therefore, some of the findings reported in this effort may not be reproduced if examined on nonfatal crashes. Figure 6. These limitations, which have hampered previous research efforts using actual traffic data, are also present in this study. Delete Template Figure 4. Table 1.
A lot of progress has been made, but some challenges remain. Oslo, Norway: Drugs and Traffic Safety; This finding is somewhat surprising because, as reviewed by Sewell et al. Figure 6.
Figure 5. The types of benzodiazepines and opioids changed over time.
For the other drugs, the risk falls between these extremes. Meta-analysis of empirical studies concerning the effects of medicines and illegal drugs including pharmacokinetics on safe driving.
Categorical data analysis.