An overview of the country of india during the british colonization period

Britain's strategy of a gradual devolution of power, its representation to Indians through successive constitutional acts and a deliberate 'Indianisation' of the administration, gathered a momentum of its own.

Political impact of colonialism in india

The companies were to build and operate the lines under a year lease, with the government having the option to buy them earlier. India's huge population made it an attractive market for British industry. A deal between the two nations left the more valuable spice trade of the Indonesian archipelago to the Netherlands and the textiles industry of India to England, but textiles overtook spices in terms of profitability, so that by , in terms of sales, the English company had overtaken the Dutch. For example, from to about , economic growth in India was very slow - much slower than in Britain or America. Heavy rain spoiled the Nawab's cannon powder the British covered theirs , leading to his defeat. Britain also encouraged the formation of the Muslim League of India in Top The Indian National Congress The foundation of the Indian National Congress in as an all India, secular political party, is widely regarded as a key turning point in formalising opposition to the Raj. In fact, once some of the Indian troops did revolt, the rebellion against British rule spread rapidly and involved many local Indian leaders who had a wide range of complaints against British rule.

By the end of the century, however, opinions were changing. The worst hit sector was jute, based in Bengal, which was an important element in overseas trade; it had prospered in the s but was hard hit in the s. During the 17th century at least, the effective rule maintained by the Mughal emperors throughout much of the subcontinent provided a secure framework for trade.

They brought in an irrigation programme, which increased the amount of land available for farming by 8 times.

Colonialism in india pdf

Cotton cloth woven by Indian weavers was being imported into Britain in huge quantities to supply a worldwide demand for cheap, washable, lightweight fabrics for dresses and furnishings. Railway costs could therefore not be tailored to the timely needs of the railways or their passengers. The Raj did not provide capital, but aware of Britain's declining position against the U. Indeed the conservative elites of princely India and big landholders were to prove increasingly useful allies, who would lend critical monetary and military support during the two World Wars. By the s rivalry between the British and the French, who were late comers to Indian trade, was becoming acute. During the 17th century at least, the effective rule maintained by the Mughal emperors throughout much of the subcontinent provided a secure framework for trade. India actually started importing food under British rule, because Indians were growing 'cash crops' like cotton and tea to be sent to Britain. The intervening years saw the rise of Jinnah and the League to political prominence through the successful exploitation of the wartime insecurities of the British, and the political vacuum created when the Congress ministries which had unanimously come to power in resigned en masse to protest at the government's unilateral decision to enter India into the war without consultation. Image 2 Indian troops at Portsmouth in waiting to be shipped to Egypt to tackle a rebellion against British rule. If we lose it we shall straightway drop to a third rate power'. There were, however, conflicts within some of the new states. The Viennese monopoly ended with the establishment of European incursions in the sea trade. By the end of the war, India had an incredible volunteer army of 2. Britain may not have realized it, but it was now just a matter of time before the British Raj came to an end. The Mughal empire had disintegrated and was being replaced by a variety of regional states.

The pressure from the rising tide of nationalism made running the empire politically and economically very challenging and increasingly not cost effective. The British were very effective at infiltrating these states and gradually taking control.

impact of colonialism in india

This was often seen as evidence that most Indians accepted and even approved of British rule.

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A Summary of British Rule in India