Write an essay titled evolution and antibiotic resistance

Antibiotic resistance essay papers

Some notable discoveries include cephalosporins - a class of antibiotics structurally related to penicillin - in , carbapenems in and fluoroquinolones - antibiotics used to treat urinary tract infections - in Evolutionary biology has proved that all organisms have evolved from a common ancestor over the last 3. Angst and Hall tentatively developed rifampicin-resistant and delicate Escherichia coli in drug-free environment, before measuring the impacts of new resistance components on fitness in antibiotic free conditions. The main issue with antibiotics is not whether but when antibiotic resistance will occur. At the start of the s, a Japanese scientist named Tsutomu Watanabe saw this coming. In he published a book titled The Antibiotic Paradox —the paradox being that these drugs, which made human lives so much better and longer during the 20th century, have also been making our bacterial enemies far more formidable by forcing them to adapt to the evolutionary challenge. In most instances, antibiotic resistance, which is a natural phenomenon, occurs when bacteria undergo or acquire mutation to alter the target sites of drugs. Resistant organisms are able to withstand attack by antimicrobial drugs such as antibiotics, antifungals, and antivirals which makes standard treatment procedures ineffective. Improvements in production have provided increasingly less expensive compounds that encourage nonprescription and off-label uses. Linezolid-resistance in Staphylococcus aureus was reported in

Many chain restaurants, such as Chipotle, Chick-Fil-A, and now Subway, will only buy meat from non-antibiotic suppliers, in order to meet increasingly high consumer standards. World War II was the start of the antibiotic era.

Causes Antibiotic resistance can also be introduced artificially into a microorganism through transformation protocols.

stages of antibiotic resistance

Angst and Hall tentatively developed rifampicin-resistant and delicate Escherichia coli in drug-free environment, before measuring the impacts of new resistance components on fitness in antibiotic free conditions.

If a bacterium carries several resistance genes, it is called multiresistant or, informally, a superbug. The extraordinary genetic capacities of microbes have benefitted from man's overuse of antibiotics to exploit every source of resistance genes and every means of horizontal gene transmission to develop multiple mechanisms of resistance for each and every antibiotic introduced into practice clinically, agriculturally, or otherwise.

how is antibiotic resistance an example of evolution

But some of these are now becoming untreatable. And the more antibiotics are used, the more quickly bacteria develop resistance," he said.

Write an essay titled evolution and antibiotic resistance

Improvements in production have provided increasingly less expensive compounds that encourage nonprescription and off-label uses. The fluoroquinolones FQs , sulfonamides, and trimethoprim are good examples. Doctors prescribed many antibiotics during World War II. The first identified case was in Japan in , and strains have since been found in hospitals in England, France and the US. Antibiotics stimulate the majority of strains that are resistant to it. However, we have not kept pace with the ability of many pathogens to develop resistance to common antibiotics. This is true, but the real wonder is the rise of antibiotic resistance in hospitals, communities, and the environment concomitant with their use. Due to this, countries have been contributing significantly to the selection of resistant strains. The discovery of antibiotics is rightly considered one of the most significant health-related events of modern times, and not only for its impact on the treatment of infectious diseases. Abstract When penicillin was first administered in , it proved to be extraordinary at wiping out nasty cases of syphilis, tuberculosis, gonorrhea, and meningitis infection. Antibiotic resistance is a consequence of evolution via natural selection.

The World Health Organization considers antibiotic resistance one of the biggest threats of the 21st century.

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The Evolution of Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria Essay